With the creation of the VT (Versement Transport – Transport Tax paid by employers) in the 1970s and PDUs (Plans de Déplacement Urbains – Urban Transport Plans) in the 1990s, French towns and cities have enjoyed the means to significantly improve their public transport provision. This rapid growth was accompanied by the development of new and varied public transport systems and technologies in order to satisfy ever more demanding requirements in terms of energy efficiency, pollution, accessibility, comfort, safety, reliability and operating costs.As far as guided transport is concerned, metro systems have become automated (e.g. VAL systems, Line D [Maggaly] in Lyon, Line 14 [Météor] in Paris) while trams have made a comeback in many large towns and cities. More recently, tyre-based guided transport systems, supposedly more economic, have also made their appearance (e.g. TVR, CIVIS, Translohr).Buses are evolving, too. Although manufacturers have, up to now, concentrated on accessibility (low floors) and engine improvements (diesel particulate filters, natural gas, biofuels, hybrid and electric motors, etc.), future developments will most likely focus on creating high-capacity buses in dedicated corridors that benefit at last from all the advantages of trams (priority at traffic lights, guiding at stops, passenger information, etc.): this is known as the BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) concept.Finally, mention should be made of the emergence of flexible, alternative systems that are progressively being developed to fill the gap between private vehicles and standard public transport lines. These systems – which range from transport on request to carpools and from carsharing to fleets of compact, automated urban vehicles – often make use of high technology (NICT, real-time route calculation, robotics) to achieve their objectives.